From The Battle for Wesnoth Wiki
Revision as of 18:01, 27 February 2009 by Voris (talk | contribs) (Valid 'name' Key Values: Removed consider attack and unconsider attack since they were reverted: https://gna.org/bugs/?func=detailitem&item_id=12375#comment7)

[edit]WML Tags


abilities, about, add_ai_behavior, advance, advanced_preference, advancefrom, advancement, advances, affect_adjacent, ai, allied_with, allow_end_turn, allow_extra_recruit, allow_recruit, allow_undo, and, animate, animate_unit, animation, aspect, attack, attack_anim, attacks, avoid;


base_unit, berserk, binary_path, break, brush;


campaign, cancel_action, candidate_action, capture_village, case, chance_to_hit, change_theme, chat, checkbox, choice, choose, clear_global_variable, clear_menu_item, clear_variable, color_adjust, color_range, command (action, replay), continue, credits_group, criteria;


damage, death, deaths, default, defend, defends, defense, delay, deprecated_message, destination, difficulty, disable, disallow_end_turn, disallow_extra_recruit, disallow_recruit, do, do_command, drains, draw_weapon_anim;


editor_group, editor_music, editor_times, effect, else (action, animation), elseif, endlevel, end_turn (action, replay), enemy_of, engine, entry (credits, options), era, event, extra_anim;


facet, facing, fake_unit, false, feedback, female, filter (concept, event), filter_adjacent, filter_adjacent_location, filter_attack, filter_attacker, filter_base_value, filter_condition, filter_defender, filter_enemy, filter_location, filter_opponent, filter_own, filter_owner, filter_radius, filter_recall, filter_second, filter_second_attack, filter_self, filter_side, filter_vision, filter_weapon, filter_wml, find_path, fire_event, firststrike, floating_text, found_item, for, foreach, frame;


game_config, get_global_variable, goal, gold, gold_carryover;


harm_unit, has_ally, has_attack, has_unit, have_location, have_unit, heal_on_hit, heal_unit, healed_anim, healing_anim, heals, hide_help, hide_unit, hides;


idle_anim, if (action, animation, intro), illuminates, image (intro, terrain), init_side, insert_tag, inspect, item, item_group;


jamming_costs, join;


kill, killed;


label, language, leader, leader_goal, leadership, leading_anim, levelin_anim, levelout_anim, lift_fog, limit, literal, load_resource, locale, lock_view, lua;


male, menu_item, message, micro_ai, missile_frame, modification, modifications, modify_ai, modify_side, modify_turns, modify_unit, modify_unit_type, move, move_unit, move_unit_fake, move_units_fake, movement_anim, movement costs, movetype, multiplayer, multiplayer_side, music;


not, note;


object, objective, objectives, on_undo, open_help, option, options, or;


part, petrifies, petrify, place_shroud, plague, poison, portrait, post_movement_anim, pre_movement_anim, primary_attack, primary_unit, print, put_to_recall_list;


race, random_placement, recall (action, replay), recalls, recruit, recruit_anim, recruiting_anim, recruits, redraw, regenerate, remove_event, remove_item, remove_object, remove_shroud, remove_sound_source, remove_time_area, remove_unit_overlay, repeat, replace_map, replace_schedule, replay, replay_start, reset_fog, resistance (ability, unit), resistance_defaults, resource, return, role, rule;


save, scenario, scroll, scroll_to, scroll_to_unit, secondary_attack, secondary_unit, section, select_unit, sequence, set_extra_recruit, set_global_variable, set_menu_item, set_recruit, set_specials, set_variable, set_variables, sheath_weapon_anim, show_if (message, set_menu_item), show_objectives, side, skirmisher, slider, slow, snapshot, sound, sound_source, source (replay, teleport), special_note, specials, split, stage, standing_anim, statistics, status, store_gold, store_items, store_locations, store_map_dimensions, store_reachable_locations, store_relative_direction, store_side, store_starting_location, store_time_of_day, store_turns, store_unit, store_unit_defense, store_unit_defense_on, store_unit_type, store_unit_type_ids, store_villages, story, swarm, switch, sync_variable;


target, team, teleport (ability, action), teleport_anim, terrain, terrain_defaults, terrain_graphics, terrain_mask, terrain_type, test, test_condition, text_input, textdomain, theme, then, tile, time, time_area, topic, toplevel, trait, transform_unit, traveler, true, tunnel, tutorial;


unhide_unit, unit, unit_overlay, unit_type, unit_worth, units, unlock_view, unpetrify, unstore_unit, unsynced;


value, variable, variables, variant, variation, victory_anim, village, vision_costs, volume;


while, wml_message, wml_schema;



The [event] Tag

This tag is a subtag of the [scenario], [unit] and [era] tags which is used to describe a set of actions which trigger at a certain point in a scenario. When used in a [scenario] tag (also includes [multiplayer], [tutorial] and [test]), the event only occurs in that scenario. When used in a [unit] type definition, the event will occur in all scenarios in which a unit of that type appears in. When used in an [era], the event will occur in any scenario which is played using that era.

This tag has keys and child tags that control when and if the event actions will be triggered. Most important of these is the name key. Without it, no error will be raised but the event will never fire. Therefore, from a practical standpoint, it can be considered mandatory. All of the others can be used or not and the event actions will fire either way.

The 'name' Key (Mandatory)



This is not like a normal 'name' key. It is a basic description of when the event will trigger. It also has a very large number of predefined values, one of which must be used for the key to be valid.

Lexicon side note: It is not uncommon to refer to these values as the 'trigger' for an event and, furthermore, to call an event by its 'trigger' name. For example, in an event containing name=moveto, a person might refer to the event as a 'moveto event' and/or refer to the 'moveto trigger' in the event or even talk about the 'event trigger' when referring to the moveto value of the 'name' key in that event. Some or all of this usage can, in fact, be found throughout this page.

Template:DevFeature The name key can accept a list of comma separated values describing when the event will be triggered.*

For example:


* Note that unless you use first_time_only=no, the event will fire only once, not once for each listed type.

Valid 'name' Key Values

All valid values are listed here along with a description of when this value will cause the event to be triggered. Any value not listed here will not work no matter how logical or awesome you think it sounds.

Triggers before a scenario 'starts' -- before anything is shown on the screen at all. Can be used to set up things like village ownership. For things displayed on-screen such as character dialog, use start instead.
Triggers after the map is shown but before the scenario begins -- before players can 'do' anything.
new turn
Triggers whenever the last player ends their turn. See also first_time_only=no. When the last player ends their turn, before any events of this type trigger, the value of the WML variable turn_number is set to the number of the turn that is beginning.
side turn
Triggers when a side is about to start its turn. Before events of this type trigger, the value of the WML variable side_number is set to the number of the side of the player about to take their turn. This is before any healing takes place for that side, before calculating income, and before restoring unit movement and status.
ai turn
Triggered just before the AI is invoked for a side. This is called after side turn, and thus the WML variable side_number still holds the number of this side.
turn refresh
Like side turn, triggers just before a side is taking control but after healing, calculating income, and restoring unit movement and status.
turn X
For X equals a number greater than 1, this event triggers at the start of turn X. The value of X cannot be 1 but, if that effect is needed, use name=new turn and first_time_only=yes to achieve the equivalent of what turn 1 would do.
time over
Triggers on turn turns. (turns is specified in [scenario])
enemies defeated
Triggers when all units with canrecruit=yes (that is, all leaders) not allied with side 1 are killed.
In this scenario, any tag of the form [endlevel] result=victory [/endlevel] will be automatically preceded by all actions in this tag. It helps debugging if the victory event allows you to safely advance to any of the possible next maps after using the ":n" command. Scenarios where key units are picked up before the victory, or where some action chosen earlier determines which map to advance to, make it hard to quickly test scenarios in a campaign. (See also: [endlevel], DirectActionsWML)
In this scenario, any tag of the form [endlevel] result=defeat [/endlevel] will be automatically preceded by all actions in this tag. (See also [endlevel], DirectActionsWML)

Filters can be applied to the following event triggers (see FilterWML; see also below). The actions specified in the event tag will be executed only if the filter returns true. These event triggers are all actions by units (moveto, attack) or things that happen to units (recruit, advance). When one of these events is triggered, the position of the active unit (referred to as the primary unit) is stored in the variables x1 and y1 and the position of any unit that primary unit does something to is stored in the variables x2 and y2 (this unit is referred to as the secondary unit below). These units are also automatically stored in the variables 'unit' and 'second_unit' as if they had been stored using the [store_unit] tag. see SingleUnitWML

Triggers after the primary unit moves. Typically this is used when the primary unit gets to a particular location and a filter for the location of the primary unit is included; remember that this is the location that the primary unit lands on, not the location it started on or any location it travels on.
An [allow_undo] tag anywhere within a moveto event will cancel any lack of undo functionality the event would have caused. Note that undo functionality will only move the unit back to its former location; it will not other changes to the game caused by the event. Thus it is up to the scenario designer to use this tag correctly.
Triggers when the primary unit becomes visible to the secondary unit in particular after not being visible to the secondary unit's side (so if the secondary unit's side doesn't have shroud or fog, the event never triggers). This happens both when the primary unit moves into view during its turn, and when the secondary unit moves to a location where it can see the primary unit. (This editor hasn't tested whether the event triggers multiple times if the primary unit moves into view of multiple units at once, or if not, which one gets chosen to be the secondary unit here.) (Note: it appears that when a sighted event is triggered because an enemy unit moves into your field of view, the game engine cannot determine which unit (on your side) sees the unit that moved, and so it fires a name=sighted event without setting $second_unit. This means that, for example, using speaker=second_unit inside a message tag may fail.)
Triggers when the primary unit attacks the secondary unit.
Similar to attack, but is triggered after the fight instead of before. Note that if either unit is killed during the fight, this event triggers before any die events.
Triggers when the the primary unit (the attacker) hits the secondary unit (the defender).
Template:DevFeature The value of the WML variable damage_inflicted is set to the number of hitpoints inflicted by the attacker.
Same as attacker_hits, but is triggered when the attacker misses.
Triggers when the primary unit (the attacker) is hit in retaliation by the secondary unit (the defender).
Template:DevFeature The value of the WML variable damage_inflicted is set to the number of hitpoints inflicted by the defender.
Same as defender_hits, but is triggered when the defender misses.
Triggers when the primary unit is hit by an attack with the 'stones' ability (See stones, AbilitiesWML) by the secondary unit (the unit with the 'stones' ability).
last breath
Triggers when the primary unit is killed by the secondary unit, but before the death animation is triggered.
Triggers when the primary unit is killed by the secondary unit.
Triggers when the primary unit captures a village. The village may have been previously neutral, or previously owned by another side; merely moving into your own villages does not constitute a capture.
Triggers when the primary unit is recruited or recalled. (That is, when a unit is recruited or recalled, it will trigger this event and this event's filter will filter that unit.). Template:DevFeature The recruit will no longer triggers on recalls.
Triggers when the primary unit is recruited, but before it is displayed. Template:DevFeature The prerecruit will no longer triggers on recalls.
Triggers just before the primary unit is going to advance to another unit.
Triggers just after the primary unit has advanced to another unit.
Triggers when the primary unit is selected. Note: in networked multiplayer, these events are only executed by the client on which the event is triggered, leading to out of sync errors if you modify the game state in the event.
menu item X
Triggers when a WML menu item with id=X is selected. Note: if the menu item has a [command], this event may be executed before or after the command; there is no guarantee.
Template:DevFeature prerecall
Triggers when a unit is recalled, but before it is displayed. This event is not trigger when a unit is recruit.
Template:DevFeature recall
Triggers after a unit is recalled. This event is not trigger when a unit is recruit.
Template:DevFeature Other events with a custom name may be invoked from [fire_event]

Optional Keys and Tags

These keys and tags are more complex ways to filter when an event should trigger:


Whether the event should be removed from the scenario after it is triggered. There are two possible values for this key:
Default behavior if key is omitted. The event will trigger the first time it can and never again.
The event will every time the criteria are met instead of only the first time.


The event will only trigger if the primary unit matches this filter.


Like [filter], but for the secondary unit.


Can be used to set additional filtering criteria for the primary unit and the secondary unit that are not generally available in a standard unit filter. Can be used in events attack, attacker_hits, attacker_misses, defender_hits, defender_misses and attack_end. (Template:DevFeature renamed to [filter_attack])


Like [special_filter], but for the secondary unit. (Template:DevFeature renamed to [filter_second_attack])


A special case 'action', the [event] tag may be used to create a nested event.


This key is only relevant inside of a nested event and controls when variable substitution will occur in those special case actions.

Actions triggered by [event]

After the trigger conditions have been met, all action tags within the [event] tag are executed in the order they are written in.

There are 3 main types of actions:

Several actions use standard filters to find out which units to execute the command on. These are denoted by the phrases "standard unit filter" and "standard location filter".

Nested Events

There is one special type of action: event creation. By placing an [event] tag inside another [event] tag, the nested event is spawned (created) when the parent (outer) event is encountered (when executing the contents of the parent event).

(See Examples)

Delayed Variable Substitution

Variable substitution for a nested event can happen either when it is spawned by the parent event or when it is triggered itself. This is controlled with the key delayed_variable_substitution which is used in the nested event.

If this key is set to yes, the variables in the nested event will contain values from the turn in which the nested event was triggered. This is the default behavior if the key is omitted. If set to no, the variables in the nested event are set at the time the parent event is triggered.

This behavior can be fine tuned with a special syntax when referencing variables. Instead of the normal $variable syntax, use $|variable to cause a variable to contain values relevant to the turn in which the nested event was triggered even when delayed_variable_substitution is set to no. In this way you can have a mix of variables relevant to the parent and nested event trigger times.

(See Examples)

Miscellaneous Notes and Examples

Primary/Secondary Unit Speaker Example

In events, the primary unit can be referred to as unit and the secondary unit can be referred to as second_unit in [message] tags using the speaker key. For example:

        message= _ "Hahaha! I finally killed you!"

        message= _ "It's not over yet! I'll come back to haunt you!"

Nested Event Example

An event is created for a portal that opens on turn 10. The parent (or 'outer') event executes on turn 10 at which point the nested moveto event is created. This nested event executes when a player steps on a certain spot.

    name=turn 10



        # moving to 5,8 will trigger this event only on turn 10 and after

An equivalent way of doing this would be to create a single moveto event with an [if] statement to check for turn number but using nested [event] tags is a convenient shortcut to accomplish this task without resorting to [if] statements.

Delayed Variable Substitution Example

This code will display the turn on which the nested moveto event happens.

    name=turn 10



        {DEBUG_MSG "Turn $turn_number"} 

Since this is the default behavior for the delayed_variable_substitution key, the following example is identical.

    name=turn 10



        {DEBUG_MSG "Turn $turn_number"} 

This code will always display "Turn 10" when the nested moveto event happens. This is because the variable substitution is done when the parent event is triggered and spawns the nested event, not when the nested event is triggered.

    name=turn 10



        {DEBUG_MSG "Turn $turn_number"} 

Finally, this example is identical to the first two, in that it will display the turn on which the nested moveto event happens despite the fact that the delayed_variable_substitution key is set to no. This is because the special $|variable syntax is used.

    name=turn 10



        {DEBUG_MSG "Turn $|turn_number"} 

See Also