Difference between revisions of "WML Templates"

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This page provides a set of blank 'templates' which can be used as a basis
+
 
for user-made campaigns, scenarios, and units. You will need to have a basic
+
This page provides a set of blank 'templates' which can be used as a basis for user-made campaigns, scenarios, and units. You will need to have a basic understanding of WML to make best use of these resources. See [[ReferenceWML]]. You will also need to understand how to create text files on your computer and set up an appropriate directory structure for the campaign. By the time you have created a simple campaign using these templates, you should have learned enough about WML to be able to create more ambitious work on your own.
understanding of WML to make best use of these resources. See
 
[[ReferenceWML]]. You will also need to understand how to create text files
 
on your computer and set up an appropriate directory structure for the
 
campaign. By the time you have created a simple campaign using these
 
templates, you should have learned enough about WML to be able to create
 
more ambitious work on your own.
 
  
 
== Campaigns ==
 
== Campaigns ==
  
For a basic campaign, you need to create a set of .cfg files in the correct
+
For a basic campaign, you need to create a set of .cfg files in the correct locations. That also means you have to create a set of correctly-named directories as well. These examples will lead you through the basic setup of a campaign called ''Example_Campaign''. You will need to replace all occurrences of ''Example_Campaign'' with the name of your own campaign.
locations. That also means you have to create a set of correctly-named
 
directories as well. These examples will lead you through the basic setup of
 
a campaign called ''Example_Campaign''. You will need to replace all
 
occurrences of ''Example_Campaign'' with the name of your own campaign.
 
  
For everything to work reliably, the names must be ''exactly'' as shown. If
+
For everything to work reliably, the names must be ''exactly'' as shown. If there is a mismatch between any of the names, Wesnoth will not be able to find all the data it needs to run your campaign, and it will stop dead with an error. Assume that all names are case-sensitive, and use underscores ( _ ) for spaces between words. Avoid accented characters as well. If you do not, you may find that your campaign only works properly for other people using the same operating system as you.
there is a mismatch between any of the names, Wesnoth will not be able to
 
find all the data it needs to run your campaign, and it will stop dead with
 
an error. Assume that all names are case-sensitive, and use underscores ( _
 
) for spaces between words. Avoid accented characters as well. If you do
 
not, you may find that your campaign only works properly for other people
 
using the same operating system as you.
 
  
For Linux users, all paths are relative to
+
For Linux users, all paths are relative to ''/home/username/.wesnoth/data/campaigns/'', where ''username'' will be the currently logged-in user. The game has been organised so that you can keep your own data separate from the main Wesnoth data, which means your custom campaigns will not interfere with the workings of the rest of the game, and ensures that you should never need to alter anything inside the main Wesnoth folder (usually ''/usr/local/share/wesnoth'' or similar).
''/home/username/.wesnoth/data/campaigns/'', where ''username'' will be the
 
currently logged-in user. The game has been organised so that you can keep
 
your own data separate from the main Wesnoth data, which means your custom
 
campaigns will not interfere with the workings of the rest of the game, and
 
ensures that you should never need to alter anything inside the main Wesnoth
 
folder (usually ''/usr/local/share/wesnoth'' or similar).
 
  
 
For Mac users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]
 
For Mac users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]
  
 
For Windows users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]
 
For Windows users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]
 
  
 
=== Basic file creation ===
 
=== Basic file creation ===
  
To make a campaign, you need to create a set of files and directories, as
+
To make a campaign, you need to create a set of files and directories, as follows:
follows:
 
  
 
*A blank text file: ''/Example_Campaign.cfg''
 
*A blank text file: ''/Example_Campaign.cfg''
Line 57: Line 33:
 
*Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: ''/story.cfg''
 
*Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: ''/story.cfg''
  
 +
'''Tip:''' Number your scenarios as the first part of their filenames. This makes it easier to tell what order they will be used in. If your scenarios branch (meaning a player will ''either'' play scenario A ''or'' scenario B, but not both), label the alternatives something like ''03a_First_Branch.cfg'', ''03b_Second_Branch.cfg'' and so on. For a basic campaign, we advise you not to use scenario branching unless you're already a confident WML coder.
  
'''Tip:''' Number your scenarios as the first part of their filenames. This
+
'''Tip:''' Use the same numbering scheme for your maps as well, although if you want to name the maps differently from the corresponding scenario, that's fine. For example, you might have a scenario called ''01_Kidnap_Attempt.cfg'', while the associated map is called ''01_The_Royal_Park.map''.
makes it easier to tell what order they will be used in. If your scenarios
 
branch (meaning a player will ''either'' play scenario A ''or'' scenario B,
 
but not both), label the alternatives something like
 
''03a_First_Branch.cfg'', ''03b_Second_Branch.cfg'' and so on. For a basic
 
campaign, we advise you not to use scenario branching unless you're already
 
a confident WML coder.
 
  
'''Tip:''' Use the same numbering scheme for your maps as well, although if
+
While you may not need custom folders for, say, units or campaign-specific graphics, it does no harm to set them up in advance and leave them empty, so we suggest you create them anyway.
you want to name the maps differently from the corresponding scenario,
 
that's fine. For example, you might have a scenario called
 
''01_Kidnap_Attempt.cfg'', while the associated map is called
 
''01_The_Royal_Park.map''.
 
  
While you may not need custom folders for, say, units or campaign-specific
+
It is important that you place all the parts of your campaign in the right places and that the folders are named correctly, because Wesnoth will look for these folders to find your scenarios, images etc. If you use a different folder arrangement of your own (for example if you store all your macros in a ''/macros/'' directory) then you will have to adjust the example code accordingly.
graphics, it does no harm to set them up in advance and leave them empty, so
 
we suggest you create them anyway.
 
 
 
It is important that you place all the parts of your campaign in the right
 
places and that the folders are named correctly, because Wesnoth will look
 
for these folders to find your scenarios, images etc. If you use a different
 
folder arrangement of your own (for example if you store all your macros in
 
a ''/macros/'' directory) then you will have to adjust the example code
 
accordingly.
 
 
 
'''Tip:''' Choose an abbreviation for your campaign that doesn't clash
 
with the names of any other campaign. For example, ''Heir to the Throne'' is
 
commonly abbreviated ''HTTT''. If your campaign is called ''An Example
 
Campaign'', use ''AEC''. This is useful because you can then prepend ''AEC''
 
to your campaign-specific macros and avoid accidental name clashes with WML
 
code from other campaigns.
 
  
 +
'''Tip:''' Choose an abbreviation for your campaign that doesn't clash with the names of any other campaign. For example, ''Heir to the Throne'' is commonly abbreviated ''HTTT''. If your campaign is called ''An Example Campaign'', use ''AEC''. This is useful because you can then prepend ''AEC'' to your campaign-specific macros and avoid accidental name clashes with WML code from other campaigns.
  
 
=== Example_Campaign.cfg, [Campaign] section ===
 
=== Example_Campaign.cfg, [Campaign] section ===
  
The ''Example_Campaign.cfg'' file has two parts. The first part determines
+
The ''Example_Campaign.cfg'' file has two parts. The first part determines the available difficulty settings and difficulty descriptions for your campaign. Without this data, your campaign will not appear in the Wesnoth menu, and you won't be able to select it for playing. The difficulty settings are stored between a ''[campaign]'' and a ''[/campaign]'' tag as shown below. The parts marked '''in bold''' are the bits you will need to customise:
the available difficulty settings and difficulty descriptions for your
 
campaign. Without this data, your campaign will not appear in the Wesnoth
 
menu, and you won't be able to select it for playing. The difficulty
 
settings are stored between a ''[campaign]'' and a ''[/campaign]'' tag as
 
shown below. The parts marked '''in bold''' are the bits you will need to
 
customise:
 
  
 
  [campaign]
 
  [campaign]
Line 116: Line 62:
 
  <br>
 
  <br>
 
  icon='''Campaign_Icon.png'''
 
  icon='''Campaign_Icon.png'''
  description= _ "'''This is an example campaign template, all ready to be
+
  description= _ "'''This is an example campaign template, all ready to be customised.'''"
customised.'''"
 
 
  <br>
 
  <br>
 
   [about]
 
   [about]
Line 131: Line 76:
 
  [/campaign]
 
  [/campaign]
  
 +
Working through this block of data a few lines at a time:
  
Working through this block of data a few lines at a time:
 
  
 
  name= _ "'''An Example Campaign'''"
 
  name= _ "'''An Example Campaign'''"
  
 
+
The name of your campaign as it is displayed in the Wesnoth game. This is free-text. The name should more-or-less correspond to the name of the campaign folder, but you don't have to worry about file naming restrictions such as having to use underscores for spaces.
The name of your campaign as it is displayed in the Wesnoth game. This is
 
free-text. The name should more-or-less correspond to the name of the
 
campaign folder, but you don't have to worry about file naming restrictions
 
such as having to use underscores for spaces.
 
  
  
Line 150: Line 91:
 
  define='''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
 
  define='''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
  
We will call this important entry the ''campaign name key''. The ''#ifdef''
+
We will call this important entry the ''campaign name key''. The ''#ifdef'' command used in the next section must exactly match whatever you define here.
command used in the next section must exactly match whatever you define here.
 
  
  
 
  first_scenario='''First_Scenario'''
 
  first_scenario='''First_Scenario'''
  
The scenario identifier for the first scenario. This must exactly match the
+
The scenario identifier for the first scenario. This must exactly match the scenario ID in the relevant scenario file. It's helpful (but not compulsory) to have the scenario filename and the scenario ID match.
scenario ID in the relevant scenario file. It's helpful (but not compulsory)
 
to have the scenario filename and the scenario ID match.
 
  
  
 
  difficulties=EASY,NORMAL,HARD
 
  difficulties=EASY,NORMAL,HARD
  
Using three different difficulty levels is very common for Wesnoth
+
Using three different difficulty levels is very common for Wesnoth scenarios, but you can have more or fewer if you want. For now, stick with three, and leave their names unaltered.
scenarios, but you can have more or fewer if you want. For now, stick with
 
three, and leave their names unaltered.
 
  
  
Line 175: Line 111:
 
  _"'''Hard setting description'''" _"(Hard)"}
 
  _"'''Hard setting description'''" _"(Hard)"}
  
There are six different things you can customise here. The Easy, Normal and
+
There are six different things you can customise here. The Easy, Normal and Hard setting descriptions are usually set to an atmospheric name for the corresponding difficulty level. For example, you might use ''Scout'' for the easiest setting, ''Warrior'' for the middle setting, and ''General'' for the hardest setting. As a rough guide, you should limit yourself to 1-3 words for each difficulty description. The ''Easy_Image.png'', ''Normal_Image.png'' and ''Hard_Image.png'' refer to custom graphics for each difficulty level. Normally you would save these in the ''/Example_Campaign/images/'' folder. You can also use any standard Wesnoth graphic. For example, if you wanted to use the image of an orcish archer for one of the difficulty settings, you would give the filename as ''units/orcs/archer.png''.
Hard setting descriptions are usually set to an atmospheric name for the
 
corresponding difficulty level. For example, you might use ''Scout'' for the
 
easiest setting, ''Warrior'' for the middle setting, and ''General'' for the
 
hardest setting. As a rough guide, you should limit yourself to 1-3 words
 
for each difficulty description. The ''Easy_Image.png'',
 
''Normal_Image.png'' and ''Hard_Image.png'' refer to custom graphics for
 
each difficulty level. Normally you would save these in the
 
''/Example_Campaign/images/'' folder. You can also use any standard Wesnoth
 
graphic. For example, if you wanted to use the image of an orcish archer for
 
one of the difficulty settings, you would give the filename as
 
''units/orcs/archer.png''
 
  
  
 
  icon='''Campaign_Icon.png'''
 
  icon='''Campaign_Icon.png'''
  
A custom campaign icon is optional. If you want to use a standard Wesnoth
+
A custom campaign icon is optional. If you want to use a standard Wesnoth image, provide the path from the main Wesnoth images directory. For example, ''items/monolith3.png''. Otherwise Wesnoth will look in the ''/Example_Campaign/images/'' folder, in this example for a png file called ''Campaign_Icon.png''.
image, provide the path from the main Wesnoth images directory. For example,
 
''items/monolith3.png''. Otherwise Wesnoth will look in the
 
''/Example_Campaign/images/'' folder, in this example for a png file called
 
''Campaign_Icon.png''.
 
  
  
  description= _ "'''This is an example campaign template, all ready to be
+
  description= _ "'''This is an example campaign template, all ready to be customised.'''"
customised.'''"
 
  
The campaign description is also free-text. This is a chance to give a quick
+
The campaign description is also free-text. This is a chance to give a quick summary of what your campaign is about. 2-3 lines of text is about the right length.
summary of what your campaign is about. 2-3 lines of text is about the right
 
length.
 
  
  
Line 216: Line 134:
 
   [/about]
 
   [/about]
  
These bits are optional, but if you're planning to share the campaign with
+
These bits are optional, but if you're planning to share the campaign with others, it's helpful to have some information about who you are. You might also want to credit the people who have helped you with artwork, debugging, or lots of other things, but at the minimum you should fill in your name as the original campaign designer and presumably as the current maintainer too.
others, it's helpful to have some information about who you are. You might
 
also want to credit the people who have helped you with artwork, debugging,
 
or lots of other things, but at the minimum you should fill in your name as
 
the original campaign designer and presumably as the current maintainer too.
 
 
 
Having filled in and customised all of this data, you have set up a workable
 
skeleton campaign structure. There are extra pieces of data that could be
 
inserted into the campaign section, but the basic setup described here is
 
enough to be going on with. Once you are ready to be more ambitions, see
 
[[CampaignWML]] for details on other tags and customisation that could be of
 
use.
 
  
 +
Having filled in and customised all of this data, you have set up a workable skeleton campaign structure. There are extra pieces of data that could be inserted into the campaign section, but the basic setup described here is enough to be going on with. Once you are ready to be more ambitions, see [[CampaignWML]] for details on other tags and customisation that could be of use.
  
 
=== Example_Campaign.cfg, #define section ===
 
=== Example_Campaign.cfg, #define section ===
  
When Wesnoth starts up, it scans for all available campaign files. But
+
When Wesnoth starts up, it scans for all available campaign files. But loading ''all'' the images, macros, units etc. from all available campaigns might take a very long time and might cause errors, so when Wesnoth first starts it only reads the data stored between the ''[campaign]'' and ''[/campaign]'' tags.
loading ''all'' the images, macros, units etc. from all available campaigns
 
might take a very long time and might cause errors, so when Wesnoth first
 
starts it only reads the data stored between the ''[campaign]'' and
 
''[/campaign]'' tags.
 
  
Remember the line ''define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'', which we highlighted as being
+
Remember the line ''define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'', which we highlighted as being important? When a particular campaign is selected by the player, Wesnoth starts loading all the rest of the data for that particular campaign. But for Wesnoth to do this, the ''campaign name key'' and the campaign data must match up correctly. Assuming they do, all the scenario code found by Wesnoth matching the campaign name key will be run. And that is what the lines of code below are for. As before, you will need to customise all the bits marked '''in bold''':
important? When a particular campaign is selected by the player, Wesnoth
 
starts loading all the rest of the data for that particular campaign. But
 
for Wesnoth to do this, the ''campaign name key'' and the campaign data must
 
match up correctly. Assuming they do, all the scenario code found by Wesnoth
 
matching the campaign name key will be run. And that is what the lines of
 
code below are for. As before, you will need to customise all the bits
 
marked '''in bold''':
 
  
 
  #ifdef '''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
 
  #ifdef '''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
Line 272: Line 169:
 
  #ifdef '''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
 
  #ifdef '''EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'''
  
This must match the ''define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'' from the ''[[campaign]]''
+
This must match the ''define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN'' from the ''[campaign]'' section.
section.
 
  
  
Line 280: Line 176:
 
  [/binary_path]
 
  [/binary_path]
  
The ''[binary_path]'' tag tells Wesnoth where the ''images/'', ''units/'',
+
The ''[binary_path]'' tag tells Wesnoth where the ''images/'', ''units/'', ''scenarios/'', ''maps/'' and ''utils/'' folders are.
''scenarios/'', ''maps/'' and ''utils/'' folders are.
 
  
  
 
  # Load campaign utilities first
 
  # Load campaign utilities first
  
This line is just a free-text comment. Note that in WML, the order in which
+
This line is just a free-text comment. Note that in WML, the order in which we load things matters. It's usually a good idea to load campaign macros and utilities as soon as possible.  By loading these utilities ''before'' the units and scenarios, we know that our custom utilities are available for use in our unit and scenario definitions. Trying to load scenario resources in the wrong order is a common cause of problems when writing campaigns. If for some reason you need to load things in a different order to make your campaign work, adjust the warning accordingly.
we load things matters. It's usually a good idea to load campaign macros and
 
utilities as soon as possible.  By loading these utilities ''before'' the
 
units and scenarios, we know that our custom utilities are available for use
 
in our unit and scenario definitions. Trying to load scenario resources in
 
the wrong order is a common cause of problems when writing campaigns. If for
 
some reason you need to load things in a different order to make your
 
campaign work, adjust the warning accordingly.
 
  
  
Line 306: Line 194:
 
  [/units]
 
  [/units]
  
These lines load all the custom units for the campaign. (''# Add custom
+
These lines load all the custom units for the campaign. (''# Add custom units'' is just another free-text comment.)
units'' is just another free-text comment.)
 
  
  
Line 313: Line 200:
 
  {@campaigns/'''Example_Campaign'''/scenarios}
 
  {@campaigns/'''Example_Campaign'''/scenarios}
  
Another comment, then a line that tells Wesnoth where to find all the
+
Another comment, then a line that tells Wesnoth where to find all the campaign scenarios.
campaign scenarios.
 
  
  
 
  #endif
 
  #endif
  
The ''#ifdef'' at the start of this section is a special multi-line
+
The ''#ifdef'' at the start of this section is a special multi-line instruction which must be closed using an ''#endif'' tag.
instruction which must be closed using an ''#endif'' tag.
 
 
 
  
 
=== utils.cfg ===
 
=== utils.cfg ===
  
Next you need a file called /Example_Campaign/utils/utils.cfg. If you
+
Next you need a file called ''/Example_Campaign/utils/utils.cfg''. If you created the ''utils/'' folder and ''utils.cfg'' file in section 1, a blank file with the correct name will already be set up in the correct location. Otherwise, create it now.
created the utils folder and utils.cfg file in section 1, a blank file with
 
the correct name will already be set up in the correct location. Otherwise,
 
create it now.
 
  
The purpose of the utils.cfg file is to act as a repository for any
+
The purpose of the ''utils.cfg'' file is to act as a repository for any campaign-specific macros you create. Other useful macros can be stored here as well. How you organise them is up to you &ndash; you can store them all in the ''utils.cfg'' file, or save each one in its own .cfg file. As long as you save all you macros inside the utils directory, everything should work as expected.
campaign-specific macros you create. Other useful macros can be stored here
 
as well. How you organise them is up to you &ndash; you can store them all
 
in the utils.cfg file, or save each one in its own .cfg file. As long as you
 
save all you macros inside the utils directory, everything should work as
 
expected.
 
  
 
Here are some sample macros that are widely-used in many campaigns:
 
Here are some sample macros that are widely-used in many campaigns:
 
  
 
==== Maps ====
 
==== Maps ====
Line 349: Line 224:
 
  #enddef
 
  #enddef
  
'''Usage:''' Just copy-and-paste these five lines of text ''untouched'' into
+
'''Usage:''' Just copy-and-paste these five lines of text ''untouched'' into the utils.cfg file. When you want to use this macro, you call it in your ''scenario.cfg'' files, by inserting a line such as ''map={MAP 01_First_Scenario.map}'' or ''map={MAP 02a_Second_Scenario_Branch_A.map}'' customising as appropriate to your campaign.
the utils.cfg file. When you want to use this macro, you call it in your
 
''scenario.cfg'' files, by inserting a line such as ''map={MAP
 
01_First_Scenario.map}'' or ''map={MAP 02a_Second_Scenario_Branch_A.map}''
 
customising as appropriate to your campaign.
 
 
 
  
 
=== deaths.cfg ===
 
=== deaths.cfg ===
  
This is a macro that will trigger on the death of major campaign characters,
+
This is a macro that will trigger on the death of major campaign characters, including the heroes. If you only need a few dying speeches, you could just store the deaths macro inside ''utils.cfg''. If you have more than about four, or if you plan for characters to use different dying speeches in different scenarios, it's probably better to store the deaths macro separately, as it could get rather long.
including the heroes. If you only need a few dying speeches, you could just
 
store the deaths macro inside ''utils.cfg''. If you have more than about
 
four, or if you plan for characters to use different dying speeches in
 
different scenarios, it's probably better to store the deaths macro
 
separately, as it could get rather long.
 
  
 
  #define '''AEC_DEATHS'''
 
  #define '''AEC_DEATHS'''
Line 411: Line 276:
 
  #enddef
 
  #enddef
  
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the ''deaths.cfg'' file, and alter the
+
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the ''deaths.cfg'' file, and alter the names and final words for each character. If the unit's dying means game over for the player, include the section of text that says
names and final words for each character. If the unit's dying means game
 
over for the player, include the section of text that says
 
  
 
  [endlevel]
 
  [endlevel]
Line 421: Line 284:
 
otherwise delete it.
 
otherwise delete it.
  
If the unit's dying means an immediate victory in that scenario, include the
+
If the unit's dying means an immediate victory in that scenario, include the section of text that says
section of text that says
 
  
 
  [endlevel]
 
  [endlevel]
Line 428: Line 290:
 
  [/endlevel]
 
  [/endlevel]
  
If you have additional units who need to speak some final words, just make
+
If you have additional units who need to speak some final words, just make extra copies of the appropriate ''[event] &hellip; [/event]'' section and customise them to suit.
extra copies of the appropriate ''[event] &hellip; [/event]'' section and
 
customise them to suit.
 
 
 
  
 
=== story.cfg ===
 
=== story.cfg ===
  
The ''story.cfg'' file allows you to collect together all the background plot
+
The ''story.cfg'' file allows you to collect together all the background plot for the campaign in one place. You ''can'' include this data inside the individual scenario files, but it's better coding practice to separate things out a bit. You can then manage the entire campaign plot in one place rather than having to scan through a dozen scenario files.
for the campaign in one place. You ''can'' include this data inside the
 
individual scenario files, but it's better coding practice to separate
 
things out a bit. You can then manage the entire campaign plot in one place
 
rather than having to scan through a dozen scenario files.
 
  
  
Line 481: Line 336:
 
  #enddef
 
  #enddef
  
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the ''story.cfg'' file, and alter the
+
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the ''story.cfg'' file, and alter the music, text and background image for each stage of the campaign. Each block of story text should be about 2-4 lines. You can have more background text at the very start of the campaign, but don't insert two or three paragraphs of prose between every scenario. Very few people will read it. When you need extra plot sections, just make extra copies of the appropriate parts and customise them.
music, text and background image for each stage of the campaign. Each block
 
of story text should be about 2-4 lines. You can have more background text
 
at the very start of the campaign, but don't insert two or three paragraphs
 
of prose between every scenario. Very few people will read it. When you need
 
extra plot sections, just make extra copies of the appropriate parts and
 
customise them.
 
 
 
Music is optional. If you don't want any music delete the ''music=&hellip;''
 
lines.
 
  
On Linux the standard Wesnoth music available is in
+
Music is optional. If you don't want any music delete the ''music=&hellip;'' lines.
''/usr/local/share/wesnoth/music/''
 
  
In Windows, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from
+
On Linux the standard Wesnoth music available is in ''/usr/local/share/wesnoth/music/''.
version to version]
 
  
On the Mac, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from
+
In Windows, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from version to version].
version to version]
 
  
Background images are optional but encouraged. If no image filename is
+
On the Mac, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from version to version].
supplied, the text appears against a black screen, which is rather dull. If
 
you don't have any suitable images delete the ''background=&hellip;'' lines.
 
  
 +
Background images are optional but encouraged. If no image filename is supplied, the text appears against a black screen, which is rather dull. If you don't have any suitable images delete the ''background=&hellip;'' lines.
  
 
=== route.cfg ===
 
=== route.cfg ===
  
The ''route.cfg'' file allows you to track your heroes' progress across a
+
The ''route.cfg'' file allows you to track your heroes' progress across a campaign map. You don't have to have a campaign map at all, of course, but they are widely-used in many Wesnoth campaigns.
campaign map. You don't have to have a campaign map at all, of course, but
 
they are widely-used in many Wesnoth campaigns.
 
  
 
  #define '''AEC_ROUTE01'''
 
  #define '''AEC_ROUTE01'''
Line 544: Line 384:
 
  #enddef
 
  #enddef
  
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the route.cfg file, and alter the
+
'''Usage:''' Copy-and-paste this into the route.cfg file, and alter the background, ''DOT'' and ''CROSS'' commands to suit the map. Make extra copies of each section from ''#define'' to ''#enddef'' and renumber them for scenarios 03 and onwards. ''show_title=yes'' is optional, and shows the campaign title. You can delete this line if you don't want the title to appear.
background, ''DOT'' and ''CROSS'' commands to suit the map. Make extra
 
copies of each section from ''#define'' to ''#enddef'' and renumber them for
 
scenarios 03 and onwards. ''show_title=yes'' is optional, and shows the
 
campaign title. You can delete this line if you don't want the title to
 
appear.
 
 
 
'''Tip:''' The distance between dots is measured in pixels. 30-60 pixels
 
between dots is about right. The bigger the gap, the faster the heroes are
 
assumed to be moving, so if they're moving at constant speed try to keep the
 
distance between dots more or less constant. That's a bit more complicated
 
if they're moving at an angle other than exactly horizontal or exactly
 
vertical. As a rule of thumb, 50 dots horizontally comes to 35 + 35 at
 
45&deg; when moving diagonally.
 
  
 +
'''Tip:''' The distance between dots is measured in pixels. 30-60 pixels between dots is about right. The bigger the gap, the faster the heroes are assumed to be moving, so if they're moving at constant speed try to keep the distance between dots more or less constant. That's a bit more complicated if they're moving at an angle other than exactly horizontal or exactly vertical. As a rule of thumb, 50 dots horizontally comes to 35 + 35 at 45&deg; when moving diagonally.
  
 
=== Scenarios ===
 
=== Scenarios ===
  
'''Note:''' This template refers to macros defined in the example macro
+
'''Note:''' This template refers to macros defined in the example macro files given above, ''utils.cfg'', ''deaths.cfg'', ''story.cfg'' and ''route.cfg''. That's why you have to set up those files first. To use this template, make copies of it as ''01_First_Scenario.cfg'', ''02_Second_Scenario.cfg'' and so on for each scenario you have planned, store them in the ''/Example_Campaign/scenarios/'' folder, then customise each one in turn.
files given above, ''utils.cfg'', ''deaths.cfg'', ''story.cfg'' and
 
''route.cfg''. That's why you have to set up those files first. To use this
 
template, make copies of it as ''01_First_Scenario.cfg'',
 
''02_Second_Scenario.cfg'' and so on for each scenario you have planned,
 
store them in the ''/Example_Campaign/scenarios/'' folder, then customise
 
each one in turn.
 
  
 
  [scenario]
 
  [scenario]
Line 658: Line 480:
 
  <br>
 
  <br>
 
  [/scenario]
 
  [/scenario]
 
 
 
  
 
=== Units ===
 
=== Units ===
Line 681: Line 500:
 
  cost=
 
  cost=
 
  <br>
 
  <br>
  usage=## AI usage: values are 'scout', 'fighter', 'archer', 'healer' and 'mixed fighter'
+
  usage=## AI usage: values are 'scout', 'fighter', 'archer', 'healer' and
 +
'mixed fighter'
 
  unit_description= _ ""
 
  unit_description= _ ""
 
  get_hit_sound=groan.wav
 
  get_hit_sound=groan.wav

Revision as of 19:33, 28 January 2009

This page provides a set of blank 'templates' which can be used as a basis for user-made campaigns, scenarios, and units. You will need to have a basic understanding of WML to make best use of these resources. See ReferenceWML. You will also need to understand how to create text files on your computer and set up an appropriate directory structure for the campaign. By the time you have created a simple campaign using these templates, you should have learned enough about WML to be able to create more ambitious work on your own.

Campaigns

For a basic campaign, you need to create a set of .cfg files in the correct locations. That also means you have to create a set of correctly-named directories as well. These examples will lead you through the basic setup of a campaign called Example_Campaign. You will need to replace all occurrences of Example_Campaign with the name of your own campaign.

For everything to work reliably, the names must be exactly as shown. If there is a mismatch between any of the names, Wesnoth will not be able to find all the data it needs to run your campaign, and it will stop dead with an error. Assume that all names are case-sensitive, and use underscores ( _ ) for spaces between words. Avoid accented characters as well. If you do not, you may find that your campaign only works properly for other people using the same operating system as you.

For Linux users, all paths are relative to /home/username/.wesnoth/data/campaigns/, where username will be the currently logged-in user. The game has been organised so that you can keep your own data separate from the main Wesnoth data, which means your custom campaigns will not interfere with the workings of the rest of the game, and ensures that you should never need to alter anything inside the main Wesnoth folder (usually /usr/local/share/wesnoth or similar).

For Mac users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]

For Windows users, [need correct information; may vary from version to version]

Basic file creation

To make a campaign, you need to create a set of files and directories, as follows:

  • A blank text file: /Example_Campaign.cfg
  • A campaign folder: /Example_Campaign/
  • A scenario folder: /Example_Campaign/scenarios/
  • A maps folder: /Example_Campaign/maps/
  • A units folder: /Example_Campaign/units/
  • An images folder: /Example_Campaign/images/
  • A utilities (macros) folder: /Example_Campaign/utils/
  • At least one scenario file: /Example_Campaign/scenarios/01_First_Scenario.cfg
  • As many maps as scenarios: /Example_Campaign/maps/01_First_Scenario.map
  • Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: /utils.cfg
  • Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: /deaths.cfg
  • Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: /route.cfg
  • Inside the utils folder, a blank text file: /story.cfg

Tip: Number your scenarios as the first part of their filenames. This makes it easier to tell what order they will be used in. If your scenarios branch (meaning a player will either play scenario A or scenario B, but not both), label the alternatives something like 03a_First_Branch.cfg, 03b_Second_Branch.cfg and so on. For a basic campaign, we advise you not to use scenario branching unless you're already a confident WML coder.

Tip: Use the same numbering scheme for your maps as well, although if you want to name the maps differently from the corresponding scenario, that's fine. For example, you might have a scenario called 01_Kidnap_Attempt.cfg, while the associated map is called 01_The_Royal_Park.map.

While you may not need custom folders for, say, units or campaign-specific graphics, it does no harm to set them up in advance and leave them empty, so we suggest you create them anyway.

It is important that you place all the parts of your campaign in the right places and that the folders are named correctly, because Wesnoth will look for these folders to find your scenarios, images etc. If you use a different folder arrangement of your own (for example if you store all your macros in a /macros/ directory) then you will have to adjust the example code accordingly.

Tip: Choose an abbreviation for your campaign that doesn't clash with the names of any other campaign. For example, Heir to the Throne is commonly abbreviated HTTT. If your campaign is called An Example Campaign, use AEC. This is useful because you can then prepend AEC to your campaign-specific macros and avoid accidental name clashes with WML code from other campaigns.

Example_Campaign.cfg, [Campaign] section

The Example_Campaign.cfg file has two parts. The first part determines the available difficulty settings and difficulty descriptions for your campaign. Without this data, your campaign will not appear in the Wesnoth menu, and you won't be able to select it for playing. The difficulty settings are stored between a [campaign] and a [/campaign] tag as shown below. The parts marked in bold are the bits you will need to customise:

[campaign]
name= _ "An Example Campaign"
id=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN
define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN
first_scenario=First_Scenario

difficulties=EASY,NORMAL,HARD difficulty_descriptions={MENU_IMG_TXT2 Easy_Image.png _"Easy setting description" _"(Easy)"} + ";" + {MENU_IMG_TXT2 Normal_Image.png _"Normal setting description" _"(Normal)"} + ";" + {MENU_IMG_TXT2 Hard_Image.png _"Hard setting description" _"(Hard)"}
icon=Campaign_Icon.png description= _ "This is an example campaign template, all ready to be customised."
[about] title= _ "Campaign Designer" text="Your Name" [/about]
[about] title= _ "Current Maintainer" text="Your Name" [/about]
[/campaign]

Working through this block of data a few lines at a time:


name= _ "An Example Campaign"

The name of your campaign as it is displayed in the Wesnoth game. This is free-text. The name should more-or-less correspond to the name of the campaign folder, but you don't have to worry about file naming restrictions such as having to use underscores for spaces.


id=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN

The campaign identifier. This is used internally by the Wesnoth game.


define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN

We will call this important entry the campaign name key. The #ifdef command used in the next section must exactly match whatever you define here.


first_scenario=First_Scenario

The scenario identifier for the first scenario. This must exactly match the scenario ID in the relevant scenario file. It's helpful (but not compulsory) to have the scenario filename and the scenario ID match.


difficulties=EASY,NORMAL,HARD

Using three different difficulty levels is very common for Wesnoth scenarios, but you can have more or fewer if you want. For now, stick with three, and leave their names unaltered.


difficulty_descriptions={MENU_IMG_TXT2 Easy_Image.png
_"Easy setting description" _"(Easy)"} + ";"
+ {MENU_IMG_TXT2 Normal_Image.png
_"Normal setting description" _"(Normal)"} + ";"
+ {MENU_IMG_TXT2 Hard_Image.png
_"Hard setting description" _"(Hard)"}

There are six different things you can customise here. The Easy, Normal and Hard setting descriptions are usually set to an atmospheric name for the corresponding difficulty level. For example, you might use Scout for the easiest setting, Warrior for the middle setting, and General for the hardest setting. As a rough guide, you should limit yourself to 1-3 words for each difficulty description. The Easy_Image.png, Normal_Image.png and Hard_Image.png refer to custom graphics for each difficulty level. Normally you would save these in the /Example_Campaign/images/ folder. You can also use any standard Wesnoth graphic. For example, if you wanted to use the image of an orcish archer for one of the difficulty settings, you would give the filename as units/orcs/archer.png.


icon=Campaign_Icon.png

A custom campaign icon is optional. If you want to use a standard Wesnoth image, provide the path from the main Wesnoth images directory. For example, items/monolith3.png. Otherwise Wesnoth will look in the /Example_Campaign/images/ folder, in this example for a png file called Campaign_Icon.png.


description= _ "This is an example campaign template, all ready to be customised."

The campaign description is also free-text. This is a chance to give a quick summary of what your campaign is about. 2-3 lines of text is about the right length.


  [about]
    title= _ "Campaign Designer"
    text="Your Name"
  [/about]

[about] title= _ "Current Maintainer" text="Your Name" [/about]

These bits are optional, but if you're planning to share the campaign with others, it's helpful to have some information about who you are. You might also want to credit the people who have helped you with artwork, debugging, or lots of other things, but at the minimum you should fill in your name as the original campaign designer and presumably as the current maintainer too.

Having filled in and customised all of this data, you have set up a workable skeleton campaign structure. There are extra pieces of data that could be inserted into the campaign section, but the basic setup described here is enough to be going on with. Once you are ready to be more ambitions, see CampaignWML for details on other tags and customisation that could be of use.

Example_Campaign.cfg, #define section

When Wesnoth starts up, it scans for all available campaign files. But loading all the images, macros, units etc. from all available campaigns might take a very long time and might cause errors, so when Wesnoth first starts it only reads the data stored between the [campaign] and [/campaign] tags.

Remember the line define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN, which we highlighted as being important? When a particular campaign is selected by the player, Wesnoth starts loading all the rest of the data for that particular campaign. But for Wesnoth to do this, the campaign name key and the campaign data must match up correctly. Assuming they do, all the scenario code found by Wesnoth matching the campaign name key will be run. And that is what the lines of code below are for. As before, you will need to customise all the bits marked in bold:

#ifdef EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN

[binary_path] path=data/campaigns/Example_Campaign [/binary_path]
# Load campaign utilities first {@campaigns/Example_Campaign/utils}
# Add custom units [+units] {@campaigns/Example_Campaign/units} [/units]
# Add scenarios {@campaigns/Example_Campagn/scenarios}
#endif


What do these lines of data do?


#ifdef EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN

This must match the define=EXAMPLE_CAMPAIGN from the [campaign] section.


[binary_path]
path=data/campaigns/Example_Campaign
[/binary_path]

The [binary_path] tag tells Wesnoth where the images/, units/, scenarios/, maps/ and utils/ folders are.


# Load campaign utilities first

This line is just a free-text comment. Note that in WML, the order in which we load things matters. It's usually a good idea to load campaign macros and utilities as soon as possible. By loading these utilities before the units and scenarios, we know that our custom utilities are available for use in our unit and scenario definitions. Trying to load scenario resources in the wrong order is a common cause of problems when writing campaigns. If for some reason you need to load things in a different order to make your campaign work, adjust the warning accordingly.


{@campaigns/Example_Campaign/utils}

This line loads all the campaign macros and utilities.


# Add custom units
[+units]
{@campaigns/Example_Campaign/units}
[/units]

These lines load all the custom units for the campaign. (# Add custom units is just another free-text comment.)


# Add scenarios
{@campaigns/Example_Campaign/scenarios}

Another comment, then a line that tells Wesnoth where to find all the campaign scenarios.


#endif

The #ifdef at the start of this section is a special multi-line instruction which must be closed using an #endif tag.

utils.cfg

Next you need a file called /Example_Campaign/utils/utils.cfg. If you created the utils/ folder and utils.cfg file in section 1, a blank file with the correct name will already be set up in the correct location. Otherwise, create it now.

The purpose of the utils.cfg file is to act as a repository for any campaign-specific macros you create. Other useful macros can be stored here as well. How you organise them is up to you – you can store them all in the utils.cfg file, or save each one in its own .cfg file. As long as you save all you macros inside the utils directory, everything should work as expected.

Here are some sample macros that are widely-used in many campaigns:

Maps

# A simple map-listing macro
# Usage: map={MAP scenario_name.map}

#define MAP MAP_NAME map_data="{@campaigns/CAMPAIGN_NAME/maps/{MAP_NAME}}" #enddef

Usage: Just copy-and-paste these five lines of text untouched into the utils.cfg file. When you want to use this macro, you call it in your scenario.cfg files, by inserting a line such as map={MAP 01_First_Scenario.map} or map={MAP 02a_Second_Scenario_Branch_A.map} customising as appropriate to your campaign.

deaths.cfg

This is a macro that will trigger on the death of major campaign characters, including the heroes. If you only need a few dying speeches, you could just store the deaths macro inside utils.cfg. If you have more than about four, or if you plan for characters to use different dying speeches in different scenarios, it's probably better to store the deaths macro separately, as it could get rather long.

#define AEC_DEATHS

[event] name=die [filter] description="Hero Name" [/filter] [message] description="Hero Name" message= _ "Hero's final words" [/message] [endlevel] result=defeat [/endlevel] [/event]
[event] name=die [filter] description="Sidekick Name" [/filter] [message] description="Sidekick Name" message= _ "Sidekick's final words" [/message] [endlevel] result=defeat [/endlevel] [/event]
[event] name=die [filter] description="Enemy Name" [/filter] [message] description="Enemy Name" message= _ "Enemy's final words" [/message] [endlevel] result=victory [/endlevel] [/event]
#enddef

Usage: Copy-and-paste this into the deaths.cfg file, and alter the names and final words for each character. If the unit's dying means game over for the player, include the section of text that says

[endlevel]
result=defeat
[/endlevel]

otherwise delete it.

If the unit's dying means an immediate victory in that scenario, include the section of text that says

[endlevel]
result=victory
[/endlevel]

If you have additional units who need to speak some final words, just make extra copies of the appropriate [event] … [/event] section and customise them to suit.

story.cfg

The story.cfg file allows you to collect together all the background plot for the campaign in one place. You can include this data inside the individual scenario files, but it's better coding practice to separate things out a bit. You can then manage the entire campaign plot in one place rather than having to scan through a dozen scenario files.


#define AEC_STORY01
[story]
  [part]
  music=gameplay01.ogg
  story= _ "The background story, part one."
  background=Background_Image01.png
  [/part]
  [part]
  music=gameplay02.ogg
  story= _ "The background story, part two."
  background=Background_Image02.png
  [/part]
[/story]
#enddef

#define AEC_STORY02 [story] [part] music=gameplay01.ogg story= _ "The background story, part three." background=Background_Image03.png [/part] [/story] #enddef
#define AEC_STORY03 #Placeholder macro; no extra plot exposition for this scenario. #enddef
#define AEC_STORY04 [story] [part] music=gameplay03.ogg story= _ "An unexpected twist halfway through the campaign." background=Background_Image04.png [/part] [/story] #enddef

Usage: Copy-and-paste this into the story.cfg file, and alter the music, text and background image for each stage of the campaign. Each block of story text should be about 2-4 lines. You can have more background text at the very start of the campaign, but don't insert two or three paragraphs of prose between every scenario. Very few people will read it. When you need extra plot sections, just make extra copies of the appropriate parts and customise them.

Music is optional. If you don't want any music delete the music=… lines.

On Linux the standard Wesnoth music available is in /usr/local/share/wesnoth/music/.

In Windows, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from version to version].

On the Mac, the music will be in [need correct information; may vary from version to version].

Background images are optional but encouraged. If no image filename is supplied, the text appears against a black screen, which is rather dull. If you don't have any suitable images delete the background=… lines.

route.cfg

The route.cfg file allows you to track your heroes' progress across a campaign map. You don't have to have a campaign map at all, of course, but they are widely-used in many Wesnoth campaigns.

#define AEC_ROUTE01
[story]
  [part]
  background=Campaign_Map.png
  show_title=yes
  {DOT 100 150}
  {DOT 150 150}
  {DOT 200 150}
  {DOT 250 150}
  {DOT 250 200}
  {CROSS 250 250}
  [/part]
[/story]
#enddef

#define AEC_ROUTE02 [story] [part] background=Campaign_Map.png show_title=yes {DOT 280 290} {DOT 310 330} {DOT 340 370} {DOT 370 410} {DOT 400 450} {DOT 430 490} {DOT 460 530} {CROSS 490 570} [/part] [/story] #enddef

Usage: Copy-and-paste this into the route.cfg file, and alter the background, DOT and CROSS commands to suit the map. Make extra copies of each section from #define to #enddef and renumber them for scenarios 03 and onwards. show_title=yes is optional, and shows the campaign title. You can delete this line if you don't want the title to appear.

Tip: The distance between dots is measured in pixels. 30-60 pixels between dots is about right. The bigger the gap, the faster the heroes are assumed to be moving, so if they're moving at constant speed try to keep the distance between dots more or less constant. That's a bit more complicated if they're moving at an angle other than exactly horizontal or exactly vertical. As a rule of thumb, 50 dots horizontally comes to 35 + 35 at 45° when moving diagonally.

Scenarios

Note: This template refers to macros defined in the example macro files given above, utils.cfg, deaths.cfg, story.cfg and route.cfg. That's why you have to set up those files first. To use this template, make copies of it as 01_First_Scenario.cfg, 02_Second_Scenario.cfg and so on for each scenario you have planned, store them in the /Example_Campaign/scenarios/ folder, then customise each one in turn.

[scenario]
name= _ "The First Scenario"
id=01_First_Scenario
next_scenario=02_Second_Scenario

{MAP 01_First_Scenario.map} {SCENARIO_MUSIC "gameplay01.ogg"} {TURNS 20 18 15}
{MORNING} {AFTERNOON} {DUSK} {FIRST_WATCH} {SECOND_WATCH} {DAWN}
victory_when_enemies_defeated=yes disallow_recall=no
{AEC_STORY_01} {AEC_ROUTE_01}
[side] side=1 controller=human fog=no shroud=no team_name=good description=Hero Name type=Spearman canrecruit=yes recruit=Archer,Bowman,Chocobone {GOLD 150 125 100} [/side]
[side] side=2 team_name=evil description=Enemy Name type=Horseman canrecruit=yes recruit=Draug,Elvish Archer,Fencer {GOLD 150 200 250} [/side]
{AEC_DEATHS}
[event] name=start [recall] description= [/recall] [message] description= message= _ "" [/message] [objectives] side=1 [objective] description= _ "Victory Condition" condition=win [/objective] [objective] description= _ "Death of Hero" condition=lose [/objective] [objective] description= _ "Death of Sidekick" condition=lose [/objective] [objective] description= _ "Turns run out" condition=lose [/objective] [/objectives] [/event]
[event] name= [filter] [/filter] [message] description= message= _ "" [/message] [/event]
[/scenario]

Units

[unit]
id=
name= _ ""
image=

race= hitpoints= movement_type= movement= alignment= ability=null
experience=500 advanceto=null level= cost=
usage=## AI usage: values are 'scout', 'fighter', 'archer', 'healer' and

'mixed fighter'

unit_description= _ ""
get_hit_sound=groan.wav
  [attack]
  name= _ ""
  type=
  damage=
  number=
  special=null
    [frame]
    begin=-100
    end=100
    image=
    [/frame]
    [sound]
    time=-200
    sound=
    [/sound]
  [/attack]
  [attack]
  name= _ ""
  type=
  range=long
  damage=
  number=
  special=null
    [sound]
    time=-200
    sound=
    [/sound]
    [missile_frame]
    begin=-100
    end=0
    image=
    image_diagonal=
    [/missile_frame]
  [/attack]
[/unit]

See Also