This translation exists for the following reasons: 1. The Valencian language is a defined language a long time ago. The-most-probable theory is that all the languages in Levante: Catalan, Valencian, Balearic (Majorcan in the past) and Provençal[] included came from a old common language called “Romance” and the Valencian became different to the rest in XIV century by the influence of Mozarab [], Aragonese [], and Castilian (Spanish), though there are more theories about its beginnings. But everybody agree the XV century was the “Gold Valencian Century”. In that century the language had the highest glory (very developed already). In that period were written books like Tirant lo Blanch (Joanot Martorell) and authors very well-known like Ausias March, Vicent Ferrer... (and many others) and the firsts Valencian dictionaries and orthographies like Liber Elegantiorum of Joan Esteve “escrit en llati i valentiana llingua” (written in Latin and Valencian language), Carles Ros with their orthography and dictionary, Josep Nebot i Perez, ending in Puig Rules (from RACV) following the work of Lluis Fullana i Miras.
2. The vocabulary, orthography and accentuation will be from RACV, because is the historic institution which was born in 20 January 1915 in order to defend the Valencian language. We won’t follow the AVL rules, which was born in 23 July 2001, by order of the Generalitat (Regional Government), because is an intrusion of politics in the language. Moreover, they follow the Castellon Rules whose errors we put briefly (they try to adjust the Valencian orthography to Catalan, breaking with the previous types of orthographies):
Base 3. At the end of the word we write P (cap, camp, cup, (recipient), macip). Exceptions: endings in FOB (hidròfob) and in SIL·LAB (monosíl·lab); behind consonant in words whose feminine and derivatives are written in B (corb, corbera) and amb or ab (preposition); adob, alarb, aljub, baobab, barb, cub (geometric figure, square), club, exub, gàlib, nabab, torb, tub. This base have a lot of exceptions, which is negative for an orthographic system. The Valencian rule is more simple and fits with Valencian phonetic. The words in the 3rd Base don’t include in that exception, must be written following their phonetic, with final P. Exceptions: club, English word. (The word tub is from Catalan. In Valencian we say and write tubo) and “ab”.
Base 11. At the end of the word you must write T and no D (pit, ardit, avalot, mut). Exceptions: Behind consonant in words whose feminine and derivatives are written in D (estupend, cf. estupenda, sord, cf. sorda, esguard cf. esguardar). Behind vowel in feminine ended in ETUD, ITUD, (consuetud, solitud). In some technical and foreign words like anhídrid, sumand, babord (babor in Val.), lord. We write D (dit). ... 3. Never in the end of the word (except ad*), though the derivative word was written in D: ciutat – ciutadà, the participles –at a –ada
Base 13. The unvoiced fricative palatal sound (French CH) are represented always by X (Xàtiva, marxa, seixanta, ix) Sometimes behind consonant like esfinx (esfinge), linx (gat cerval), etc. and always behind de A, E, O, U, the letter X have the sound CS (Alexandre, luxe). Moreover in cases like -fixe- and derivatives. In order to have the sound “French CH” we add a T (empatxar, despatx). Exceptions: sometimes behind I (bolitx). The affricative pre-palatal sound (Spanish CH) are represented in the beginning of the word by X (xic, xaruga, Xecoeslovàquia). In the middle of the word by TJ in front of A, O, U (platja, desitjós); and by TG in front of E, I, (metge). In the end of the word with G behind other vowels (vaig, lleig, roig, puig). This base disqualify the Castellon Rules because they reveal the total ignorance of the authors in Valencian phonetic.
a) The Castellon Bases give the same sound to the X in Xàtiva and seixanta (xixanta) to punxa and marxa (puncha and marcha), when the palatal sound one is affricative and the other is fricative. b) They put a T in front of X (TX) and behind I (bolitx), consonantal group TX inadmissible (following the Castellon Rules, we don’t pronounce the T, however in Valencian empatxar, despatx and bolitx are pronounced as a ch, and we must write empachar, despaig, bolig). c) At the beginning of the word, they write the unvoiced fricative sound like an X instead of CH, deleting from orthography the consonant CH, traditional in Valencian orthography. (In Valencian we say chic, no xic; charuga, no xaruga; Checoslovaquia, no Xecoeslovaquia). d) In the middle of the word they put a T in front of G or J forming the groups TG and TJ whose T don’t sound never. We remind that in not-apichat Valencian the sound “j/g” is voiced fricative palatal, then, we don’t need put that “t” which in Catalan only it’s by phonetics reasons and not etymologics reasons, this sound is different to Spanish ch (except for apichat). The Spanish ch sound came from Spanish (in Catalan doesn’t exist) and for that reason we must write “ch”
In general digraphs with “euphonic t” don’t exist in Valencian: the tz is s (except the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16) like urbanisar, finalizar, ¡assucac! the tm is m: semana the tn is n: cona the tll is ll: billet, desenrollar the tl is l: guala, mole the tx is ch and the tg/j is g/j (but mitjan is mitan) (said before)
Uses of CH. 1. With the sound /c/ (with signe up) (chic). 1.1. Initial and interior of the word between vowels and behind consonant: chufa, Chirivella, clochina, archiu. 1.2. At the end of the word we write IG o G. 2. With the sound /k/. (March). At the end of the word, in the name of villages and surnames which have it by tradition: Albuixech, Albiach.
We write Y (yo) (The sound “y” doesn’t exist in Catalan and came to Valencian from Spanish, then, we must write “y”) 1. In the beginning of the word in front of vowel: yuxtaposar (which isn’t pronounced like “junts, joc, jagant i junc”) 2. Between vowels: epopeya, apoyar, yayo (we don’t say epopeia, apoiar, iaio; it’s a sound different to this tonic “i”: it isn’t the same “baïa” that “baya” and doesn’t pronounce similar) 3. In the digraph NY to represent the sound /n/ (with a signe down): pinya, puny 4. At the end of the word, in villages and surnames which have it by tradition: Alcoy (we say alcoyà and not alcoià), Montroy
Base 14. In order to differentiate LL (aquell) from geminated or double L (intel·ligencia, mol·le), we write between both L a flying point. The orthography of the Academy don’t admit this base, because in Valencian that double L doesn’t exist in the normal pronunciation, (inteligència, no intel·ligencia, mole, no mol·le). The orthography are simplified by the Academy, preferring the phonetic to the etymology and because in Valencian doesn’t exist that group: everybody pronounce in-te-li-gen-ci-a and no in-tel-li-gen-ci-a.
Base 34: ... We often find in the vocabularies two forms of the same word (AMB and AB; ELS and LOS; EL and LO). It means that both forms are totally legitimates, though the first are the most usual and recommendable. It’s inexact say that "AMB" is more usual. "amb and ab" aren’t used in the speaking language: the first one is catalan and the second one is archaic. Valencians use, instead of them, the preposition "EN" (Although I use “ab” to differentiate from the preposition “en”). Inclusive the IEC say about “WITH”: In the Val. Kingdom and in the Ebro Riverside, this prep. is reduced to en. «Se va casar en una xica» (=with a girl); «Anava en un amic». This confusion start to appear in Valencian texts in XV century (See EN, paragraph V, i RLiR, XXIX, 49-52), but generally the writers of that century used ab.
- Another curiosity: it’s used the preposition ad in front of personal pronouns, articles and demonstratives that started in vowel (thing inexistent in Catalan)
Accentuation differences: Stress on the: Ultimate syllable: are accentuated if they ends in vowel, -s and –en but not in –in (like roïn). In Valencian it’s accentuated in –en because there are many verbal forms with this end, but not in –in because the present of subjunctive hasn’t this Catalan termination, they also ends in –en and that’s why Valencian only has 4 o 5 words ends in –in that aren’t accentuated.
Penultimate syllable: Accentuated what don’t end in that terminations
Antepenultimate syllable: All accentuated
I remember that the diacritic accents also are changed: “us” in Valencian isn’t accentuated because only means “use”, but in Catalan also can mean “you”. “Be” is “good” and “bè” the bleat whereas in Catalan is “bé” (good), "be" (bleat and lamb) and “bè” is water to drink
Also I remember that accents are fitted to the pronunciation of Valencian: café, séquia, francés, depén, pésol, Valéncia, qué, série, época, pero (not cafè, sèquia, francès, depèn, pèsol, València, què, sèrie, època, però)
- In Valencian always the article "la" are apostropized in front of vowel or aitch (it doesn't exist the Catalan exception of not to apostrophize in front of I or U atonic)
History of Valencian orthography: Carles Ros began a type of orthography which was followed by the orthographies of Josep Nebot i Perez (in Lo Rat Penat) and by Lluis Fullana i Miras who inspired the Puig Rules shown here, who wanted represent the sounds “ch” and “y” which came from Spanish when Valencian was forming and which are unknowns to Catalan, that’s why some ancient writers began to write in a orthography with some differences from Catalan. Others followed the Catalan orthography following a type of orthography represented nowadays by Castellon Rules and which fits to Catalan phonetic but no to Valencian, and, in my opinion, I don’t want to provoke dyslexia :)
3. And in the end I have to say that the article 6 of Autonomic Statute of Valencian Community, supported by article 3.2 of Spanish Constitution, declare that the language of this Community is Valencian, we have the right to use it, in our case doing translations, and you mustn’t discriminate us because of our language. Because of historical, linguistic and legal reasons, we have the right to do a translation in Valencian.
PS: You shouldn’t delete this web like the previous one, in this time I did a safety copy ;)